- 21Minutes of study time
List of European countries
The countries of the European continent include 50 independent and dependent countries.
The continent of Europe is a large peninsula that is conventionally considered a continent due to its physical size and historical importance and traditions. Europe is also considered a Eurasian subcontinent and lies entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. Europe borders the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and Asia to the east. Europe is usually separated from Asia by the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian Sea, the Greater Caucasus, the Black Sea, and the Turkish Straits.
Continental European countries
The countries of the European continent are:
Albania (capital: Tirana)
Albania is located in the southeast of Europe and borders the countries of Montenegro, Macedonia, Greece and Kosovo. It has an area of 29,000 square kilometers and a 300-kilometer sea border.
Germany (capital: Berlin)
The area of Germany is 360,000 square kilometers and it is the seventh largest country in Europe. It ranks sixty-second in the world in terms of size. This country borders the Baltic Sea and Denmark from the north, Switzerland and Austria from the south, Poland and the Czech Republic from the east, and Belgium, the Netherlands and France from the west.
Andorra (Capital: Andorra la Vella)
It is located in the Pyrenees, between France and Spain, and has an area of 470 square kilometers.
Austria (capital: Vienna)
Austria has an area of 83 thousand square kilometers and consists of nine provinces. This country shares borders with Slovenia and Italy from the south, Germany and the Czech Republic from the north, and Liechtenstein and Switzerland from the west.
Armenia (capital: Yerevan)
The area of Armenia is more than 30 thousand square kilometers. Armenia has a rainy and mountainous climate and shares borders with Turkey from the west, Iran from the south, Georgia from the north, and Azerbaijan from the northeast.
Spain (Capital: Madrid)
This country is located in the Iberian Peninsula and has a common border with Portugal and France. Located in southwest Europe, Spain is the 52nd largest country in the world with an area of about 505 square kilometers.
Estonia (capital: Tallinn)
This country is located in the north of the European continent and the Baltic region. Its area is 46 thousand square kilometers and it is the smallest country in the Baltic region. Estonia shares borders with Russia, Latvia and Finland.
Slovakia (capital: Bratislava)
This country with an area of 50 thousand square kilometers is a mountainous country and is located in Central Europe. The Czech Republic, Hungary, Ukraine and Austria share a common border with this country.
Slovenia (capital: Ljubljana)
Slovenia is located in Central Europe and has an area of more than 20 thousand square kilometers and has a diverse climate. Slovenia borders Austria, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia and Hungary.
Ukraine (capital: Kyiv)
Ukraine is located in Eastern Europe and has an area of over 600,000 km, of which 2,800 km is the coastal border line. This country has 41 provinces and ranks as the 41st largest country in the world. Its borders are: Moldova, Romania, Belarus, Poland, Russia and Slovakia.
Italy (capital: Rome)
Italy, with an area of about 300,000 square kilometers, is located in the south of the European continent. 7600 square kilometers of this country are made up of beaches. Italy shares borders with France, Austria, Vatican, Switzerland, Slovenia and San Marino.
Iceland (capital: Reykjavik)
An island in the northernmost part of Europe, which has an area of 103 thousand square kilometers and has active volcanoes. This island, which is the 18th largest island in the world, is located near the countries of Scotland, Greenland and Norway.
United Kingdom (Capital: London)
The United Kingdom is a group of states including England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland located in northwestern Europe. Great Britain is made up of two islands, the larger island includes England, Scotland and Wales, and the other includes Ireland.
Belarus (capital: Minsk)
With an area of about 200 thousand kilometers, it is located in Eastern Europe, and the largest wetlands in Europe are also located in this country. Belarus’ neighbors are Russia, Lithuania, Poland, Latvia and Ukraine.
Belgium (capital: Brussels)
It is located in Western Europe and its area is more than 30 thousand square kilometers. This country consists of three geographical regions: the Arden Mountains, the coastal plain and the central plateau.
Bulgaria (capital: Sofia)
It is located in Eastern Europe and with an area of 110 thousand km, it is the fourteenth largest country in Europe.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (Capital: Sarajevo)
It is located in the southeast of Europe and its water border is about 20 km to access the waters of the Mediterranean Sea. This country shares borders with Montenegro, Serbia and Croatia.
Portugal (capital: Lisbon)
Its area is more than 92 thousand square kilometers and it is located in the southwest of Europe. It is a neighboring country of Spain.
Türkiye (capital: Ankara)
A Eurasian country, a small part of which is located in the Balkans.
Ireland (capital: Dublin)
This country is located in the form of an island in the northwest of Europe and is considered the third largest island in Europe.
Czech (capital: Prague)
It is located in Central Europe and borders Germany, Austria, Slovakia and Poland.
Denmark (Capital: Copenhagen)
With an area of 44 thousand square kilometers and a population of 6 million people, it is located in the Scandinavian and Northern Europe region. This country has a common border with Germany and has a coastline of 7 kilometers.
Russia (capital: Moscow)
With an area of 17 million square meters, it is the largest country in the world located in the north of Eurasia. Russia shares borders with 14 European and Asian countries.
Romania (capital: Bucharest)
It is located in southern Europe and with an area of 240 thousand square kilometers, it is the ninth largest country in Europe. Its population is 20 million people and it shares borders with Serbia, Ukraine, Moldova, Hungary and Bulgaria.
San Marino (Capital: San Marino)
It is the third smallest country in Europe, which is located in the south of this continent and the Italian peninsula. The climate of San Marino is Mediterranean.
Sweden (capital: Stockholm)
It is the fifth largest country in Europe with an area of 450 square kilometers. This country is located in Northern Europe and the Scandinavian region and has a common border with Norway, Finland and Denmark.
Switzerland (capital: Bern)
It is located in Western Europe and has an area of 42 thousand kilometers and a population of 9 million. Switzerland shares borders with Germany, Liechtenstein, Austria, France and Italy.
Serbia (capital: Belgrade)
It is located in southern Europe and the Balkan Peninsula, and a river named Danube flows through one third of this country. More than 25% of Serbia is covered by forests, and it shares borders with Hungary, Romania, Kosovo, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
France (capital: Paris)
This green country is located in Western Europe and is the third largest country in Europe. With a population of 65 million, this country is bordered by Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain and Monaco.
Finland (capital: Helsinki)
With a population of 6 million, it is located in Northern Europe. The countries of Russia, Sweden and Norway are its neighbors and it is considered the eighth largest country in Europe.
Cyprus (capital: Nicosia)
An island in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea that has two famous mountain ranges.
Croatia (capital: Zagreb)
It is located in the Balkan region and has an area of 65 thousand square kilometers. This country has a population of 5 million and borders Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Serbia, Hungary and Slovenia.
Georgia (capital: Tbilisi)
With an area of 70 thousand kilometers and a population of 4 million people, it is located in Eurasia and Eastern Europe and borders Turkey, Armenia, Russia and Azerbaijan.
Latvia (capital: Riga)
It is located in Northern Europe and borders Belarus, Estonia, Russia and Lithuania.
Luxembourg (capital: Luxembourg)
It is located in Western Europe and has a common border with Belgium, Germany and France.
Poland (capital: Warsaw)
The ninth largest country in the European continent with an area of 310,000 square kilometers, which borders Germany, the Czech Republic, Lithuania, Russia, Belarus, Slovakia and Ukraine.
Lithuania (capital: Vilnius)
It is located in northeastern Europe and borders Latvia, Poland, Russia and Belarus.
Malta (capital: Valletta)
It is a small archipelago located in the south of the European continent and is the center of the Mediterranean Sea. This country is located near Italy, Libya and Tunisia.
Hungary (capital: Budapest)
It is located in the central part of Europe and borders Austria, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Ukraine, Romania and Slovakia.
North Macedonia (Capital: Skopje)
It is located in the southeastern part of Europe and has an area of 25 thousand square kilometers and a population of 2 million.
Moldova (capital: Chisinau)
It borders Romania and Ukraine and is located in Eastern Europe.
Monaco (Capital: Monaco)
It is located near the southern coast of France and is the second smallest country in the world.
Norway (capital: Oslo)
This kingdom with a population of 5 million and an area of more than 380 thousand square kilometers is located in the Scandinavian region and borders Russia, Sweden and Finland.
Vatican (Capital: Vatican)
This country is the smallest country in the world, which is located in the heart of the capital of Italy.
Netherlands (capital: Amsterdam)
This country with a population of 17 million people and an area of more than 41 thousand square kilometers is located in the northwest of Europe. Its borders include the UK, Germany and Belgium.
Greece (capital: Athens)
This country is located in the southeast of the European continent and the southern part of the Balkans and has more than 6 thousand islands. Of these islands, only about 200 are habitable. The borders of this country are: Turkey, Bulgaria, Albania and Macedonia.
Among the countries of the European continent, 28 countries are members of the European Union. These countries are: Romania, France, Slovakia, Germany, Bulgaria, Italy, Spain, Hungary, Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Malta, Portugal, Ireland, Czech Republic, Latvia, Croatia, Poland, Greece, Slovenia, Luxembourg, Estonia, Lithuania, Austria and Cyprus.